A cookie is created at the request of the website a user is viewing. The website requests the web browser create a small text file with a small amount of informa-

tion, which it can access whilst you are viewing the website. The information is usually to provide some functionality such as a shopping cart to enhance the users

experience on the site.

The information saved in a cookie has a name of the cookie, and a value (which can be a numeric or text value). Other information includes the domain the cookie

is for (e.g. aboutcookies.org.uk), the path/page on the website (if not specified then the cookie is for all pages on the domain), cookie expiry date and time, if the

cookie is HTTP only (ie cannot be accessed by javascript) and finally if the cookie is a secure cookie.

Cookie uses

Cookies are used on websites to provide enhanced functionality on improve the users experience.

Examples of website cookie use include:

An online store can record items in your shopping cart whilst you are browsing the store.

A website can display different content, if you have never visited a site before. An example is many sites show a cookie warning on first visit to a website.

Allow a website to save any preferences set by a user, so that next time the settings don't need to be set again. Some is setting your home town on a weather

website.

Can tracking browsing habits. An example is an online store can suggest more useful additional items to buy, based on the previous pages visited.

For a website that requires you to login, it allows you not to have to type in your user name and password every time to visit the site (or view different pages on a

site).

Cookie types

Session cookie

A session cookie for a website only exists whilst the user is reading or navigating the website. When the user closes their web browser these cookies are usually

removed.

Persistent cookie

A persistent cookie for a website exists on a users computer until a future date. For example the cookie expiry date could be set as 1 year, and each time a website

is accessed over this period the website could access the cookie.

HttpOnly cookie

A HttpOnly cookie can only be used via HTTP or HTTPS, and therefore cannot be accessed by javascript. This reduces threat of session cookie theft via cross site

scripting (XSS).

Secure cookie

A secure cookie can only be used via HTTPS. This ensures the cookie data is encrypted, reducing the expose to cookie theft via eavesdropping.

Third-party cookie

First-party cookies are cookies set with the same domain (or its subdomain) as your browser's address bar. Third-party cookies are cookies set with domains dif-

ferent from the one shown on the address bar. The web pages on the first domain may feature content from a third-party domain, e.g. an advert run by

www.advertexample.com. Privacy setting options in most modern browsers allow you to block third-party tracking cookies.

Cookie security and privacy

Security

Cookies are text files stored on your computer, and therefore cannot be used to infect your computer with a virus or allow malicous code to run on your computer.

So cookies are not deemed dangerous, however there maybe concerns over privacy.

Privacy concerns

Cookies cannot access any other information on your computer, so the privacy concerns relate to tracking of your sites you browse.

Managing cookies

Most modern broswers allow you to manage cookies saved on your computer. For example you may wish to accept all cookies or reject all cookies.

Google Chrome

To amend the cookies settings:

Click on the chrome menu.

Select settings.

Click + Show advanced settings at the bottom of the page

Under the Privacy section click the Content settings button

In the Cookies section you are able to change the settings, such as allow cookies, remove all cookies, block third party cookies.

Further, more detailed instructions are available here: http://support.google.com/chrome/bin/answer.py?hl=en-GB&answer=95647

Internet explorer 8, 9 and 10

Select the Tools menu (ALT-X)

Select Internet Options

Click the Privacy tab

Move the slider to choose your preferred settings.

For more specialised settings click on the Advanced button, check the Override cookie handling checkbox and modify the settings to suit your requirements.

Further instruction are available here: http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/internet-explorer/delete-manage-cookies#ie=ie-10

Mozilla Firefox

Select Options

Click the Privacy tab

To clear cookies, select the remove individual cookies link.

To amend the cookie settings, change the Firefox will dropdown in the History section to Use custom settings for history.

Further instructions are available here: http://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/enable-and-disable-cookies-website-preferences

Safari

Choose Safari settings menu

Select Preferences

Click the Privacy tab.

In the Block cookies section, specify whether the browser should accept or reject cookies from websites.

If you want to see which websites store cookies on your computer, click Details.

If you set Safari to block cookies, you may need to temporarily accept cookies to open a page. Repeat the above steps, selecting Never in the “Block cookies” sec-

tion. When you’re done with the page, block cookies again, and then remove the page’s cookies.

Further details are available here:http://support.apple.com/kb/PH11913

Other browsers

With new devices being created all the time, including tablets and phones it is not possible to list every browser for every device. The best advice is to consult the

manufactures website for further instructions regarding cookies.

Cookie law

UK Regulations

Recently all EU countries introduced new rules surrounding the use of cookies on websites, this was an amended E-Privacy Directive of 2009. Each EU country

then were require to amend their laws accordingly.

The UK introduced the amendments on 25 May 2011 through The Privacy and Electronic Communications (EC Directive) (Amendment) Regulations 2011. The rel-

evant section is below:

6. - (1) Subject to paragraph (4), a person shall not store or gain information, or to gain access to information stored, in the terminal equipment of a subscriber or

user unless the requirements of paragraph (2) are met.

(2) The requirements are that the subscriber or user of that terminal equipment -

(a) is provided with clear and comprehensive information about the purposes of the storage of, or access to, that information; and

(b) has given his or her consent.

(3) Where an electronic communications network is used by the same person to store or access information in the terminal equipment of a subscriber or user on

more than one occasion, it is sufficient for the purposes of this regulation that the requirements of paragraph (2) are met in respect of the initial use.

(3A) For the purposes of paragraph (2), consent may be signified by a subscriber who amends or sets controls on the internet browser which the subscriber uses

or by using another application or programme to signify consent.

(4) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the technical storage of, or access to, information -

(a) for the sole purpose of carrying out the transmission of a communication over an electronic communications network; or

(b) where such storage or access is strictly necessary for the provision of an information society service requested by the subscriber or user.

AMAYESING CAKES
Amayesing Cakes

A cookie is created at the request of the website a user is viewing. The website

requests the web browser create a small text file with a small amount of infor-

mation, which it can access whilst you are viewing the website. The informa-

tion is usually to provide some functionality such as a shopping cart to

enhance the users experience on the site.

The information saved in a cookie has a name of the cookie, and a value (which

can be a numeric or text value). Other information includes the domain the

cookie is for (e.g. aboutcookies.org.uk), the path/page on the website (if not

specified then the cookie is for all pages on the domain), cookie expiry date and

time, if the cookie is HTTP only (ie cannot be accessed by javascript) and finally

if the cookie is a secure cookie.

Cookie uses

Cookies are used on websites to provide enhanced functionality on improve

the users experience.

Examples of website cookie use include:

An online store can record items in your shopping cart whilst you are browsing

the store.

A website can display different content, if you have never visited a site before.

An example is many sites show a cookie warning on first visit to a website.

Allow a website to save any preferences set by a user, so that next time the

settings don't need to be set again. Some is setting your home town on a

weather website.

Can tracking browsing habits. An example is an online store can suggest more

useful additional items to buy, based on the previous pages visited.

For a website that requires you to login, it allows you not to have to type in

your user name and password every time to visit the site (or view different

pages on a site).

Cookie types

Session cookie

A session cookie for a website only exists whilst the user is reading or navigat-

ing the website. When the user closes their web browser these cookies are

usually removed.

Persistent cookie

A persistent cookie for a website exists on a users computer until a future

date. For example the cookie expiry date could be set as 1 year, and each time

a website is accessed over this period the website could access the cookie.

HttpOnly cookie

A HttpOnly cookie can only be used via HTTP or HTTPS, and therefore cannot

be accessed by javascript. This reduces threat of session cookie theft via cross

site scripting (XSS).

Secure cookie

A secure cookie can only be used via HTTPS. This ensures the cookie data is

encrypted, reducing the expose to cookie theft via eavesdropping.

Third-party cookie

First-party cookies are cookies set with the same domain (or its subdomain) as

your browser's address bar. Third-party cookies are cookies set with domains

different from the one shown on the address bar. The web pages on the first

domain may feature content from a third-party domain, e.g. an advert run by

www.advertexample.com. Privacy setting options in most modern browsers

allow you to block third-party tracking cookies.

Cookie security and privacy

Security

Cookies are text files stored on your computer, and therefore cannot be used

to infect your computer with a virus or allow malicous code to run on your

computer. So cookies are not deemed dangerous, however there maybe con-

cerns over privacy.

Privacy concerns

Cookies cannot access any other information on your computer, so the privacy

concerns relate to tracking of your sites you browse.

Managing cookies

Most modern broswers allow you to manage cookies saved on your computer.

For example you may wish to accept all cookies or reject all cookies.

Google Chrome

To amend the cookies settings:

Click on the chrome menu.

Select settings.

Click + Show advanced settings at the bottom of the page

Under the Privacy section click the Content settings button

In the Cookies section you are able to change the settings, such as allow cook-

ies, remove all cookies, block third party cookies.

Further, more detailed instructions are available here:

http://support.google.com/chrome/bin/answer.py?hl=en-GB&answer=95647

Internet explorer 8, 9 and 10

Select the Tools menu (ALT-X)

Select Internet Options

Click the Privacy tab

Move the slider to choose your preferred settings.

For more specialised settings click on the Advanced button, check the Override

cookie handling checkbox and modify the settings to suit your requirements.

Further instruction are available here: http://windows.microsoft.com/en-

us/internet-explorer/delete-manage-cookies#ie=ie-10

Mozilla Firefox

Select Options

Click the Privacy tab

To clear cookies, select the remove individual cookies link.

To amend the cookie settings, change the Firefox will dropdown in the History

section to Use custom settings for history.

Further instructions are available here: http://support.mozilla.org/en-

US/kb/enable-and-disable-cookies-website-preferences

Safari

Choose Safari settings menu

Select Preferences

Click the Privacy tab.

In the Block cookies section, specify whether the browser should accept or re-

ject cookies from websites.

If you want to see which websites store cookies on your computer, click

Details.

If you set Safari to block cookies, you may need to temporarily accept cookies

to open a page. Repeat the above steps, selecting Never in the “Block cookies”

section. When you’re done with the page, block cookies again, and then re-

move the page’s cookies.

Further details are available here:http://support.apple.com/kb/PH11913

Other browsers

With new devices being created all the time, including tablets and phones it is

not possible to list every browser for every device. The best advice is to consult

the manufactures website for further instructions regarding cookies.

Cookie law

UK Regulations

Recently all EU countries introduced new rules surrounding the use of cookies

on websites, this was an amended E-Privacy Directive of 2009. Each EU coun-

try then were require to amend their laws accordingly.

The UK introduced the amendments on 25 May 2011 through The Privacy and

Electronic Communications (EC Directive) (Amendment) Regulations 2011. The

relevant section is below:

6. - (1) Subject to paragraph (4), a person shall not store or gain information, or

to gain access to information stored, in the terminal equipment of a subscriber

or user unless the requirements of paragraph (2) are met.

(2) The requirements are that the subscriber or user of that terminal

equipment -

(a) is provided with clear and comprehensive information about the purposes

of the storage of, or access to, that information; and

(b) has given his or her consent.

(3) Where an electronic communications network is used by the same person

to store or access information in the terminal equipment of a subscriber or

user on more than one occasion, it is sufficient for the purposes of this regula-

tion that the requirements of paragraph (2) are met in respect of the initial use.

(3A) For the purposes of paragraph (2), consent may be signified by a sub-

scriber who amends or sets controls on the internet browser which the sub-

scriber uses or by using another application or programme to signify consent.

(4) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the technical storage of, or access to,

information -

(a) for the sole purpose of carrying out the transmission of a communication

over an electronic communications network; or

(b) where such storage or access is strictly necessary for the provision of an in-

formation society service requested by the subscriber or user.

AMAYESING CAKES
Amayesing Cakes